Oiche na Gaoithe

“At 1 o’Clock a most tremendous hurricane commenced, which rocked the house beneath us as if it were a ship! Awfully sublime!” John O’Donovan, Monday 07th January 1839

John O’Donovan. Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5a/Odonovan.jpg/220px-Odonovan.jpg

Just one of the accounts of the night of the 06/07th January 175 years ago today when a huge storm hit the country and came to be known in folk memory as “Óiche na Gaoithe” or The Night of the Big Wind and looking out the window today and listening to the sound, it seems that the weather is commemorating the occasion by sending us Hurricane Christine.

Today we can predict and prepare for most weather events but 175 years ago, people did not have the luxury of scientific measurements and weather satellites so when the storm made landfall every community was completely unprepared for the worst battering the country has ever seen (waves broke over the top of the Cliffs of Moher in Clare, 700feet above sea level). What made it worse was the calm and tranquillity in the lead up to the event. Snow had covered the country before the 06th and while most of the country was preparing for Little Christmas or the Feast of the Epiphany, John O’Donovan and Thomas O’Conor of the First Ordnance Survey were caught in a blizzard in the Wicklow Mountains on their way to Glendalough and had to stop on the way and stay in Charley Clarke’s public house which was not up to their standard. Much of folk memory remembers an unusually warm day on Sunday the 06th of January, so warm in fact that the blanket of snow which had covered the country melted away. John O’Donovan wrote of that day’s experience:

“we set out across the same mountain (in which we had been stopped by the Snow). I never felt so tired! Sinking thro’ the half-dissolved masses of snow and occasionally down to the knees in ruts in the road… We were now within five miles of the Glen, but a misty rain, truly annoying, dashed constantly in our faces until we arrived at St. Kevin’s Shrine. Horribly beautiful! And truly romantic, but not sublime!”.

That misty rain was the only veiled warning the island got. By 6pm on the 06th wind speeds were reaching hurricane force and heavy rain was increasing and becoming sleety in places. “In towns and villages, fires flickered and doors slammed. Church bells chimed, dogs whined and cats screeched. Fishermen turned their ears west as a distant, increasingly loud rumble was heard on the frothy horizon” (Bunbury 2014). By 10 o’clock that night the island was subjected to the full force of the worst documented weather event in Irish history until 6 o’clock the following morning. As the wind rocketed through every gap in houses, tearing some to the ground, lifting roofs and knocking chimneys candles and fires would probably have been extinguished leaving families experiencing the full ferocity of nature in total darkness except for the occasional lightning strike. Even the great mansions and better built houses did not escape the destruction many losing their entire roofs or having chimney pots crashing through into the rooms below.

Since the winds had rose to deafening levels at 1 o’clock, O’Donovan could not get back to sleep. At 2’oclock, the storm rose to such a ferocity that he left his bed with the intention of fleeing the building, afraid the roof would come in on top of him. But no sooner was he out of bed

“than the window was dashed in upon the floor! And after it a squall mighty as a thunderbolt. I then, fearing that the roof would be blown off at once, pushed out the shutter and closed it as soon as the direct squall had passed off, and placed myself diagonally against it to prevent the next squall from getting at the roof inside, but the next blast shot me completely out of my position, and forced in the window!”

O’Donovan managed to get the shutter closed a second time and pressed himself against it to keep it closed for an hour while O’Conor who had been roused by the blast which threw O’Donovan ran to get help from the house owner who was himself trying to secure his cattle in a now wrecked out-house. Eventually he returned to secure the window and by morning O’Donovan was sitting by a fire trying to warm up after his freezing ordeal bracing the window. He finished his account of the nights events by frustratingly stating “Pity I have not paper to tell the rest”. He later described the impact of the storm on the landscape as “the entire country had been swept clean by some gigantic broom”.

A number of people were killed that night, mainly by falling masonry and in some cases where fires erupted. Fear spread through Dublin that a great fire might take off like happened to London in 1666. Sheep were swept from hillsides and cattle were reported to have frozen to death in the fields. Canals were blown dry and reputedly the bodies of victims killed during the Battle of the Boyne were exposed on the river banks. Tree were knocked in such large amounts that it was said not an oak tree planted pre-1839 existed in Ireland. A statistic was produced stating that 4,846 chimneys were knocked that night. While Carlow escaped relatively unscathed compared to large parts of the country, the storm still left it’s mark.

Night of the Big Wind in Carlow

Carlow Cathedral today

Carlow town was hit badly through the night and a number of serious injuries were reported. The newly built (1833) Catholic Cathedral, the first built since Catholic Emancipation had been won had a pinnacle knocked from the crown on top of the steeple. It crashed into the roof below, smashing through into the front gallery and shattered it. The last chimney on top of Carlow castle was knocked while houses were deroofed, hay stacks scattered and out-houses levelled. One resident, Thomas C. Butler had just left his bedroom when his ceiling caved in by the weight of the chimneys which had fallen on it. A back window on the Carlow Club House hotel then on Dublin Street was forced in and shattered, brace and all. So powerful was the wind hurtling through the town that it required a number of men to keep the shutters closed while another brace was found.

Carlow Cathedral pinnacles and the front gallery where one crashed through causing considerable damage

Out in the countryside the destruction was no less with serious injury reported but again escaping much of the full onslaught of the hurricane. A mile length of wall which surrounded the estate of Colonel Henry Bruen’s demesne at Oak Park was levelled. It was reported that the roofs and walls of even the best built structures shook as if it were an earthquake.

With so much destruction chaos must have loomed for days afterwards especially amongst livestock farmers. Fences and walls would have either been knocked by the wind or burst by frightened animals. While many farmers would have lost animals either through death, injury or flight, more must have knowingly gained a few head of sheep or cattle in the confusion. One Carlow man was reported as having sold ten shillings worth of slates blown down from houses which he had gone out and gathered. It was said that more people were rendered homeless by that single nights event than were evicted between 1850 and 1880. While the immediate impact was catastrophic there was a silver lining for the younger survivors and eyewitnesses of the event. When the Old Age Pensions Act was introduced in 1909, all those over 70 were made eligible. Since pre 1865 birth records were poor it was decided that anybody who could remember The Night of the Big Wind could claim the pension. One applicant Tim Joyce from Limerick explained “I always thought I was 60 but my friends came to me and told me they were certain I was 70 and as there were three or four of them against me, the evidence was too strong against me. I put in for the pension and got it”.

Bibliography

Bunbury, T. 2014 “The Night of the Big Wind”. In Ireland’s Own 5,427, 4-9.

Carr, P. 1991 The Big Wind; the story of the legendary big wind of 1839, Ireland’s greatest natural disaster. Belfast; White Row.

Letter from John O’Donovan to Thomas A. Larcom 07th January 1839. In Herity, M. (ed) 2013 Ordnance Survey Letters Wicklow and Carlow. Dublin; Fourmasters Press, 71-72.

Advertisements

Winter Solstice Moonrise at Brownshill Dolmen, Carlow

This post has nothing to do with uplands. In fact it couldn’t be further from the uplands being set just outside Carlow town. You can see Mount Leinster, the Castlecomer Plateau and the Wicklow Mountains on a clear day from here so that will do as the upland link.

There was a monstrous moon rising over Carlow last night (21st December). It was almost orange in colour and I’ve never seen it the size it was except in films where a wolf is silhouetted against it. Since Brownshill is only out the road from us I thought it might me nice to get some photos of the portal tomb with the large moon so my father and myself headed out to the site.

It was a completely clear night with only wisps of low cloud. It was so clear even the lights from the town made little difference on the night sky. By the time we reached the Dolmen the moon had completely shrank to what it would normally look like. But it wasn’t a wasted journey at all, the moon was rising directly in line with the eastern entrance stone. The mica in the granite capstone and portal stones was sparkling and we had the site completely to ourselves. I’m not sure if anyone else has witnessed this in recent decades or can we make the same claim as O’Kelly at Newgrange in 1967 and be the first to witness it since prehistory 😉

It’s not just the sun that can create a bit of magic this time of year!!!

Brownsehill Dolmen. Entrance stone is the large rectangular stone in middle

Brownsehill Dolmen. Entrance stone is the large rectangular stone in middle

Brownsehill Dolmen with the moon rising to East

Brownsehill Dolmen with the moon rising to East

Brownsehill Dolmen with moon rising to east

Brownsehill Dolmen with moon rising to east

Moon rising from inside the chamber

Moon rising from inside the chamber

Moon rise from inside the chamber

Moon rise from inside the chamber

Moon rise from inside the chamber

Moon rise from inside the chamber

My father Kevin at the Dolmen

My father Kevin at the Dolmen

I’m off to Knockroe Passage Tomb in Kilkenny this afternoon to watch the sunset alignment which worked yesterday. This will be the third year in a row going down after two cloudy years so third time lucky!!!

Up, Up and Away

The story of the Flight of Icarus indicates that for millenia, humans have wondered about how the world looks from the top down or a bird’s perspective. The advent of balloons and camera’s allowed this desire to become a reality and since the late 1800’s, kites have been employed as a means to lift cameras into the air and photograph the landscape below. This technique has become a bit of an obsession of mine in recent months.

In July I attended a one day workshop in the University of Worcester hosted by the Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry Society (http://www.rspsoc.org.uk/). A wide variety of papers from a variety of disciplines were presented highlighting how Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV’s) should be seen as techniques in and of themselves and not just a compliment or an addition to a project.

The highlight for me was a paper by Dr. John Wells of the West Lothian Archaeological Trust in Scotland (http://westlothianarchaeology.org.uk/) who showed how aerial photographs can be obtained by anyone simply and cheaply using kites and black sacks filled with helium!

“In 2012, terminally ill Trust and Group co-founder, Rosie Wells, asked for some of her money to be set aside for funding a pilot project to investigate and introduce cheap, simple, low-level aerial photography techniques to children and students. Therefore, as part of our activities, we donate kite aerial photography starter and standard kits to a range of groups and individuals. This pilot project is partly to establish a reliable system for working with children and to encourage the progression to more interesting techniques, such as working in the near infra-red.” (Extract from website)

As part of this, John donated a complete kit to me to assist in my ongoing research. This includes a HQ Delta kite, line, Pentax camera and picavet rig to attach the camera to the kite line. For this I am eternally grateful!!!

I’ve been practicing it’s use the last few weeks in the wide open football fields in UCD.  (I’d love to practice over the fields at home especially over the arable land for cropmarks but given my fear of the electric fences we have for cattle I don’t fancy a dart from the many ESB lines which criss-cross our land).  Some things I’ve learned so far include:

1. Wear gloves! (My first time using it I got a nice bit of rope burn when I removed a glove)

2. The take a photo button is very different to the power button. (The camera was flying for about ten minutes one day in the off mode)

3. The wind has a mind of its own and it hates me.

Now that I’ve gotten used to handling the kit both with another person and on my own it’s time to take it out in the field.

Image

The first attempt will be tomorrow in Glendalough, Wicklow, the site of the famous monastic site nestled in the Wicklow Mountains. Every year the UCD School of Archaeology run a fieldschool for undergraduates and for the past few years these have been centred near the monastic site itself. This year the focus is the area around the Caher.

While the football field offers a nice ground to practice using the kit on, there’s very little to aim for and to photograph as the photo shows. Image

Tomorrow offers the opportunity to practice targeting specific features as well as the wider upland landscape and will also hopefully contribute something towards the fieldschool in the form of a few aerial photographs of the excavation site.

After this it’s off over the misty mountains cold and into the dungeons and caverns of research

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NRUBe2RTq74

Watch this space!

Cherrymount Crannog Crisis

I know it’s nothing to do with uplands but this is a very important campaign so it deserves all the publicity it can get.
A crannog in County Fermanagh is in danger of destruction in advance of roadway construction. Few early medieval crannóg’s have been excavated in northern Ireland and so this is an extremely important site. So far excavation has revealed medieval leather objects, medieval woven cloth, barbed and tanged arrowheads, a gold pin, a wooden plate and bowl, extensive amounts of wattle walls, a leather shoe and human remains.

Despite the importance of the site from the outset (and as excavation revealed significant and well-preserved finds) it was only decided that 50% of the site should be excavated and only 4-6 weeks given to excavate.
Excavation ceases in wo days time after which the site is handed over for the construction of the roadway. The site will thus be left to destruction and the opportunity to slowly and meticulously excavate this important site and give it the attention it deserves will have been lost forever.

A campaign has been started by members of the archaeological community both North and South of the border to raise public and political awareness and to save this site from destruction.

The Facebook group can be found here:
https://www.facebook.com/groups/254450291340252/254648407987107/?notif_t=group_activity
and the blog can be found here:
http://rmchapple.blogspot.co.uk/2012/07/urgent-important-early-christian.html